While one of the oldest kingdoms of Europe, Scotland presents the world with more university graduates than any other countries belonging to the European Union. Ever aware of the increasing need to make their courses relevant to the requirements of both the industry and commerce, many of Scotland's universities decided to expand on new ground, engineering and technology being just two among many others, including Artificial Intelligence ( Edinburgh University ), Telecommunication expertise ( Glasgow University ) and Opto –Electronics of world class expertise ( Heriot Watt University ). Indeed, no less than 15% of Scotland's graduates have science or technology-based degrees.
As a small country, Scotland, through her 4 major airports, can boast to own superb international links. Her airports have key facilities for Rolls-Royce, BAE SYSTEMS, Thales, Raytheon, GE and Goodrich among others. As such, Scotland is a perfect centre for European operations with easy shipping to North America , Asia and Africa . Since aircraft and their components have been manufactured in Scotland from 1910 (it was, we like to remind everyone, a Scottish company that manufactured the first jet engines' fuel systems in 1929), Scotland has been at the heart of the aerospace industry from the very beginnings.
Europe's oldest kingdom is one that also leads in making products based on raw materials derived from North Sea Oil and Gas. It also boasts of superb chemical and pharmaceutical companies. It has a well-developed infrastructure (that is being improved every year) and plentiful supplies of untainted water as well as gas and electricity.
About 15.000 people are employed by the communications sector in Scotland, helping to run telecoms infrastructure manufacture, WAP application design while creating network and application software and telecom service providers.
Since the era of Scottish enlightenment, Scotland's creative industries have led the world. Indeed, more than 150.000 people are employed within this industry, with an annual turnover of some £6 billions.
It covers businesses such as advertising, architecture, arts, culture, design, film, games, music production, new media, publishing, radio and television.
The Stuart dynasty ruled over England during an era when the power of the absolute monarchy was declining in England and the representative government was increasing.
The Stuart dynasty came into power after the death of King Henry VIII’s daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, in 1603. Elizabeth was childless when she died, forcing the English government to ask the Stuart family of Scotland to assume the throne of England.
Relation to the House of Tudor
The Stuarts were related to the House of Tudor, as Mary Stuart and Elizabeth were cousins. Although Mary was executed for treason in 1587, her son James Stuart (James I), the king of Scotland, was elected to succeed Elizabeth. This choice brought the Crowns of Scotland and England under one monarch, although they remained two separate kingdoms.
James was a staunch believer in the powers of an absolute monarch, as is evidenced by his writings and speeches to the English parliament. When James assumed the throne of England, he had to contend with economic difficulties and clashes with Parliament over the power of the monarchy.
These issues arose as James attempted to raise new revenues by imposing taxes on his subjects without the approval of Parliament. James was also upset by the fact Parliament was against his choice of a potential bride for his son because she was Catholic and Spanish. This hostility occurred as a result of the tensions between Protestant England and Catholic Spain.
James was so infuriated by the Parliament’s creation of the Great Protestation in 1621, a list of privileges the English parliament claimed it was entitled to, that he dissolved Parliament and arrested four individuals responsible for this action.